Wednesday, March 25

Globalization and Human Rights

Globalization can be defined as growth on a world-wide scale. It is the process of integration and international influence of economies and cultures. It is the notion that our world ought to become – and is becoming – a global community. This also means that our global community needs to continue to inch toward a global economy, a global culture, a global (and contextual) theology, among other things. This homogenization of the world is thought by some to be negative in that it is eliminating the “authentic” culture of other countries, but as some sociologists point out, this homogenization actually – in many cases - forces each culture to look at their own culture and it often reignites passion and tradition. One must also point, though, that there no longer exists such as “authentic” self-contained culture. Western ideas and philosophies have become prominent in much of our world today, which is one of the reasons why human rights - largely influenced by thinkers such as John Locke and others - has become a major piece of Globalization. The Universal Declaration on Human Rights (the UDHR), since its publication in 1948, has created many positive effects but also some very negative effects, including disagreements about religion, language, education and other such challenges.

Globalization: The Ups and Downs
This globalization is allowing us to increasingly have the capability to overcome social, political, religious, and economic barriers between cultures. Consider languages, for example. There are some languages which are increasing in usage – such as English, Spanish, French, German, and Mandarin - whereas others dwindle and disappear. English is heralded as the lingua franca (common language) of our time, and many cultures teach it in their schools as a required language. The economy has become much more globalized in the last century as well. Toward the end of World War II, in Bretton Woods, New England, an exchange system in the form of the fixed value of American dollar was adopted, which led to the formation of three major international economic organizations. These three were the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the International Bank for Reconstruction (IBR - later the World Bank) and finally, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). But as with many things, the system did not completely stand. By the early 1970s, the Bretton Woods system collapsed. In 1971, President Nixon responded by ending the gold-based fixed rate, which led to global economic instability. Economically, there are a variety of other considerations – such as neoliberalism.

But along with these language considerations and economic considerations come again the matter of human rights. On the positive side, having a Universal piece on human rights would indicate that it is universally accepted and universally used. But although this document and its intention may be noble, it is most certainly taking a largely Western viewpoint. As the article “The Attack on Human Rights” points out, the Muslim community has difficulty accepting the freedom of religion, largely because “the Western separation of church and state, of secular and religious authority, is alien to the jurisprudence and political thought of the Islamic tradition. And they are correct. The freedoms articulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights make no sense within the theocratic bias of Islamic political thought” (103). Part of the problem raised by universal human rights - which itself can be seen as a negative of globalization - is the loss of identity. There can be a gain, as in the Arab woman seeking human rights groups for shelter, but she may lose her Muslim identity in the process, something she may not wish to sacrifice. 

The right to education is another right mentioned in the UDHR. If one holds that every human person is entitled to an education, a number of other questions are raised. What kind of an education? What is the quality of the education? Who should teach? What should be taught? These and other questions arise. There are no simple answers to these questions. Consider, for instance - if advocates for education enter into the Ivory Coast to push education for children enslaved on chocolate plantations, even if the slaves are freed and cared for, are they being provided with the right kind of education? Is the education being provided merely an imposition of Western culture and Western thought onto African culture? Should there be a standard method or standard core curriculum used across the globe - in China, the United States, Mexico, and elsewhere? Who defines what should be taught? Again, I ask many questions, but there are no simple answers. Human rights in a global context are not a simple matter of saying “I am human, I have rights. I will have a good education and be treated fairly by everyone because of the existence of the UN’s document.” This is simply not the case. 

Globalization is clearly something that is at the forefront of all major aspects of life. Our social, political, religious, economic and linguistic world has been and is continually shaped by globalization. In many ways, this globalization has a plethora of benefits, but in other ways this globalization can also come with a homogenizing price which can lead to a myriad of downfalls. One would note that this change in worldwide culture which has been continually been expanding over the past several hundred years is also allowing for our scattered world to become more connected and united. Globalization is allowing us to work together as a human race to solve world problems and in many cases we are finding ways to overcome political, social and religious differences to make the unity of humanity a reality. 

But we are also struggling to come up with answers to difficult questions posed by human rights issues, social justice issues, language and other cultures issues. The way that the United States works is not the way that Italy works, or the way that India works, or the way that New Zealand works. Human trafficking is one of the negative results of globalization, as is international criminals, the pornography industry (which is connected to human trafficking), and similar problems. There are, again, many good things that have come as a result of modern globalization - but there have also been many bad things. In many ways, this calls for a habitus for Globalization. This habitus for Globalization is a personal spiritual encounter with the Other, bearing in mind four distinct pieces of this encounter between the Other - wonder at the mystery of human uniqueness, the recognition of the other, hospitality toward the stranger and reconciliation as a way of living with diversity. Only when we are willing to have a genuine encounter with the Other, including their cultural diversity and recognize this as we can grow and begin to face these challenges together, to create peace by administering justice to the injustice.

Tuesday, March 17

Catholic Social Tradition and Meaning

Catholic Social Tradition (CST) is grounded in the conviction that human life has meaning and that meaning can be known. This is sometimes sought through thought and reflection, but also through thought and action connected to the way of living in the Christian ethic. What does this mean? C.S. Lewis, famous Anglican apologist once wrote, “If the whole universe has no meaning, we should never have found out that it has no meaning: just as, if there were no light in the universe and therefore no creatures with eyes, we should never know it was dark. Dark would be without meaning” (Mere Christianity). The notion that the universe - specifically human life within the universe - has meaning and that meaning can be known is present in every major religious tradition. In CST, this emphasis is found in the first chapter of Genesis, in which God breathes into the dust or clay of the earth and forms life (adamah) - man. This sacramental engagement with the elements links us to the creation around us, but also convicts humanity to look deeper than appearances - there is more to this world than it seems.

On a more pragmatic level, this conviction is essentially the idea that we all have a desire for meaning, and that this meaning can be found in the Creator. As such, and as humanity is part of creation we are also tasked with a responsibility to care for this creation. This means that we are called to go against human trafficking, to stand up for life, to restore those who are broken, to bring back to the community those who are marginalized - in everything, to maintain and uphold the dignity of the human person. On the one hand, this can be done through thought and reflection. Reflection on a social issue can lead to constructive thinking, which can then lead to both thought and action. A fine theology is good, but a theology without praxis is lacking. There are a number of growing movements that are within the modern CST, but as a first step, awareness is absolutely key. One must be aware of where one buy’s one’s clothes, food, accessories, appliances, and so forth.

At this point, there are two examples of growing movements based in social justice that will helpfully illustrate the principles of CST and why thought and action are important pieces of the ongoing process. Now, there are two websites that exist as non-profit click-to-donate websites. Owned by the World Food Programme, is a website that uses its ads to donate grains of rice. When a user opens up the site, they can choose between a number of different topics, such as English vocabulary, and take quizzes on these various topics. For each correct answer, ten grains of rice are donated to a growing amount of people across the world. The effectiveness of this program has grown over the last few years to now feed several thousand individuals across the globe. Another successful click-to-donate website is Care2Donate, which allows you to simply click the “donate” button. In doing so, the user’s single click generates a donation from the website’s sponsor, and the donations go directly to a fund or a charity that supports or works with these different issues. You can click to help the rainforest, “big cats,” seals, protect the oceans, animal rescue, primates, global warming, stop domestic violence, and wolves.

Although both of these examples are certainly different than actually going to a third world country to feed the hungry or getting involved with a certain charity or cause, these two examples are helpful as they provide a sense of the options available to any person who has access to the internet. Now, the foundation of CST human dignity. As such, each person is not only called on to recognize their own dignity, self-worth and value but also the dignity, worth and value in “the Other” - in every human being. Some individuals ask, “world hunger exists, but what could I possibly do to change it? I work too many hours a week and I have a wife and child to provide for.” For those people, there are a number of factors to consider. Since CST would hold that life has meaning, we can continue to create ways to help others find meaning in life and also create meaningful lives for those who have none. This is one way in which the thought, reflection and action can come together to work toward the betterment of humanity.

The parent working too many hours a week would be able to access something such as or Care2Donate. Although it may seem too simplistic and idealistic, such programs can and do exist, and offer certain individuals something beyond just thought and reflection, but a movement into the realm of thought proceeded by action. Certainly, there are other better examples of how these connections provide one with a sense of meaning, but if one is to argue that life has meaning and that meaning can be discovered, one must be open to new possibilities, new ways of being and an increased awareness connected to thought, reflection and action. This three-fold distinction can be seen as an ongoing and cyclic process that is called for when one has an engagement with CST. 

The Church: Its Mission and Social Doctrine

The documents Gaudium et Spes, Evangelii Nuntiandi and the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church are examples of the mission charged to believers by the visible Church and the social doctrine it espouses. Part of the Church’s mission is to read the signs of the times and to meet the needs of people in that age, so these three documents systematically explore issues of worker’s rights, human dignity based in the imago dei, the production of goods, the topic of evangelization as well as the responsibilities called for in evangelizing, and finally, the social doctrine of the Church and the responsibility it bears. The Church has one underlying mission of evangelization, but this evangelization can also lead to a transformation of every aspect of human life - social, political, economic, and so forth. The question begs to be asked, then - what is the Church’s Mission and Social Doctrine? 

Gaudium et Spes: The Church in the Modern World
Gaudium et Spes is the Latin phrase which begins the document, or in English, “Joys and Hopes.” This is about the joys and hopes, griefs and anxieties of men and women who have decided to follow Christ, and through the realization that they are linked with mankind and the history of mankind, they are compelled to reach out. This is the first sense of the Church’s mission to others - the goal is to help others and create brotherhood and sisterhood among all people. As such, this solidarity is shared between all humanity, everywhere, so the Church is called to tend to this solidarity. The Church believes that it is led by God’s Spirit, and it is here noted that the mission of the Church should show its religious and supremely human character, since the lives of human beings is to serve one another. Humanity, the document says, is created in God’s image, and was created male and female. This means that man is a social being. He must interact with other people to develop his or her potential and truly live.The focal point of the document is thus the human person in every way - body, mind, will, soul, heart, and conscience. 

Another role in the wider mission of the Church is to address Atheism, which is among the most serious problems of our age. In the Abrahamic traditions, we root our idea of human dignity in not only being created in God’s image but being able to connect with God through communion with him. This is not part of the atheistic worldview, which has led and is leading to many problems. For example, many do not believe that truth exists, and this kind of moral relativism can cause a lack of apathy toward other human beings and a resentment toward those who believe in a god, which can have very real consequences. But the Church - in its mission - calls its members to minister to non-believers, as God’s presence is revealed through the brotherly and sisterly charity of the faithful who work together to better mankind. This is not to say that there are not good atheists who have made and continue to make many contributions to an increasingly globalized world, but for those whose worldview is not fully-formed and thought through, problems can arise.

Now, on another note, as humans are the source, center and purpose of all economic and social life, the life of a man and woman has become ruled, in many ways, by the economics of their job and where they live. There are a large amount of people who are still underprivileged and in poverty while others live in great wealth. Further, the production of agricultural and industrial goods is being looked at today for the betterment of mankind. Citizens need to remember that it is their right and duty to contribute to true progress of their community. Employments opportunities should be made in all areas for people. The livelihood and human dignity of people in difficult conditions needs to be guaranteed. These and other considerations play into the social doctrine of the Catholic Church, which in turn is part of the wider mission of the Church. The Church has the freedom to preach the faith, teach social doctrine, exercise her role freely among men, and pass moral judgment.

One of the final pieces of the mission of the Church is to foster political freedom and responsibility of citizens. The protection of rights is necessary so that citizens can be active in the life and government of the state. To establish political life of a human basis, we need to provide an inward sense of justice and kindliness. There should be political structures governing the human race without discrimination. Dictatorships and totalitarian states, however, violate human rights. Therefore, along with this and other aforementioned considerations, the core issue is the human being, so that in Gaudium et Spes, the social doctrine and mission of the church is centered around the dignity of the human person. 

Evangelii Nuntiandi: Evangeliztion in the Modern World
This second document, Evangelii Nuntiandi, as the title suggests, focuses specifically on the mission of the Church: evangelization in the modern age. Evangelization is the primary service of the Church, and the document helpfully lays out different ways of understanding this mission. It first asks, how did Jesus carry out evangelization? “Going from town to town, preaching to the poorest - and frequently the most receptive - the joyful news of the fulfillment of the promises and of the Covenant offered by God is the mission for which Jesus declares that He is sent by the Father. And all the aspects of His mystery - the Incarnation itself, His miracles, His teaching, the gathering together of the disciples, the sending out of the Twelve, the cross and the resurrection, the permanence of His presence in the midst of His own - were components of His evangelizing activity."

From a Biblical perspective, during his earthly ministry, Jesus evidently had a special concern for the poor - hence why Pope Francis is calling us to be a Church of the Poor.  In fact, Pope Francis has said, “May we never get used to the poverty and decay around us. A Christian must act.” This is one of the major emphases of the Church’s mission as well as social doctrine. The document makes clear that the mission of the Church is made more urgent by the present-day society, and that evangelization is in fact the “deepest identity” of the Church. Indeed, “She exists in order to evangelize, that is to say, in order to preach and teach, to be the channel of the gift of grace, to reconcile sinners with God, and to perpetuate Christ's sacrifice in the Mass, which is the memorial of His death and glorious resurrection.”

The Church has a duty to live out the command of Christ to preach the gospel to all creation (Matthew 28), and this proclamation of the gospel - this kerygma, when it is adhered to, comprehended, digested and integrated into one’s life, can be transformative as a whole. But this is not the only aspect of evangelization. In fact, the transformative call of the gospel also concerns the love that God has for us and our love of God as well as the brotherly and sisterly love we are called to show for others. This love can express itself through compassion, forgiveness and reconciliation, and through the growth of the community.

Another aspect of this evangelizing mission of the Church is the duty to “proclaim the liberation of millions of human beings... of assisting the birth of this liberation, of giving witness to it, of ensuring that it is complete. This is not foreign to evangelization.” Although the Archbishop of El Salvador, Oscar Romero, did not come to prominence until after the promulgation of this document, he is an excellent example of a saintly figure who lived out this aspect of the Church’s mission. When he had first become Archbishop, he was more head-based than heart-based in his approach. However, over time, Romero watched the oppression, the needless violence and suffering in his country, and he assisted the birth of liberation. He wanted his homilies to be the voice of the people. It is individuals like Romero who live out the Church’s mission and social doctrine, and it is individuals like Romero who provide hope for the hopeless and a voice for the voiceless. 

It seems, then, that Evangelii Nuntiandi would argue that the mission of the Church as it concerns evangelization is not only concerned with the conversion of individuals to Jesus Christ, but that it also contains economic, political, social and cultural dimensions as well. The Christian ethic encompasses all of human existence, and thus, the entirety of the human person. 

Church Mission and Social Doctrine
But what of the social doctrine of the Church? The Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, chapter two, “Church Mission and Social Doctrine,” describes the various ways in which social doctrine is a part of the mission of the Church. The primary purpose for the social doctrine is to make the “message of the freedom and redemption wrought by Christ, the Gospel of the Kingdom, present in human history.” Social doctrine is at the very heart of the Church’s mission. Consider Luke 4, where Jesus goes to the synagogue in Nazareth and reads from the scroll of the prophet Isaiah. Within the passage read aloud, Jesus proclaims his message to be people-centered, or rather - proclaiming freedom for the captives, helping the poor and the needy. In a roundabout way, Jesus announces his mission - and thus the mission of the Church - to be concerned with the marginalized and transform those societal structures which are oppressive.

From a historical perspective, the term “social doctrine” dates back to Pope Pius XI and is used to designate the doctrines concerning the issues that are currently relevant to society. This process of reading the signs of the times dates back to Rerum Novarum, the papal encyclical of the late 19th century which started the modern Catholic Social Tradition. Issues concerning justice, the development of humanity, the relationships between people and groups of people, issues of peace and justice and others, are all an important part of evangelization and social doctrine, and again, it is evident that social action as a result of social doctrine is a result. The social doctrine of the Church is also thereby theological in nature, or rather, “theological-moral,” since it is intended at being a doctrinal guide for the behavior of the individual.

The social doctrine of the Church is concerned with the human person in society, with the quality of human life and the respect for human dignity, with peace in relationships between people, and with a denunciation of the “unrecognized and violated rights, especially those of the poor, the least and the weak.” In short, the social doctrine of the Church fulfills a very large piece of the Church’s mission of evangelization.

At this point, the question can now be revisited, what is the Church’s Mission and Social Doctrine? The documents Gaudium et Spes, Evangelii Nuntiandi and the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church have explored the mission charged to believers by the Church and the social doctrine it proclaims. By reading the signs of the times and meeting the needs of people in each age, these three documents explain that the mission and social doctrine of the Church should lead to a transformation of every aspect of human life - social, political, economic, cultural, religious, and so forth. This is all rooted in the primary principle of Catholic Social Teaching, which is the dignity of the human person. In a sense, the mission of evangelization and all of its various pieces, the mission of building community, the mission of fostering peace in every area of life and the mission of transforming society all stem from the dignity of the human person. Thus, one can conclude that the primary task of the Church in regard to its mission imparted by Christ is that of evangelization, and that the Church’s social doctrine is one of the most important pieces of this mission to the world.

[1] Gaudium et Spes 14.
[2] Evangelii Nuntiandi 6.
[3] Francis, Pope (Pontifex). “May we never get used to the poverty and decay around us. A Christian must act.” 3 Apr 2014, 1:03 a.m. Tweet.
[4] Evangelii Nuntiandi, 14.
[5] Ibid.
[6] Ibid., 28
[7] Ibid., 30.
[8] Groody, Daniel G. The Option for the Poor in Christian Theology. 1st ed. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007. 100. Print.
[9] Evangelii Nuntiandi, 33.
[10]The Compendium of Social Doctrine of the Church. 63.
[11] Ibid., 67.
[12] Ibid., 87.
[13] Ibid.
[14] Ibid., 73.
[15] Ibid., 81.

Social Justice Traditions and Charity

Modern social justice came out of the eighteenth century as an important political and social issue in Western civilization. Since this time, there are concepts such as political equality, citizenship and distribution of monetary resources have come to the forefront of social justice. However, it is not only within the social and political spheres that social justice has been a concern, but also within religious traditions across the globe. Within the Judeo-Christian tradition there is a long history of doctrines relating to social justice topics, particularly those found within the canonical Scriptures. 

But it was not until 1891 when Pope Leo XIII wrote the encyclical, Rerum Novarum, which kicked off modern movement. This encyclical joined the hands of Catholicism and Modernity, and addressed labor issues current at the time. Catholic Social Tradition (CST) begins with Genesis, where God creates humanity in the imago dei. As beings made in his image and likeness, we are endowed with inherent dignity, value and worth. Franciscan scholar John Dun Scotus referred to the notion as “thisness” - the particularity or uniqueness of the human person. In Genesis 4, God calls out - “where is your brother? Cain’s response is both philosophical and social - “Am I my brother’s keeper?” The Judeo-Christian tradition would answer in the affirmative, and declare that we are called to be our brother and sister’s “keeper” as well as taking care of the world around us. 

These issues, although we as individuals are responsible for working toward the common good, are not ours alone. We must work with others, as a community. Since the dignity of the human person is the foundation for a moral vision of society, it therefore follows that social, economic, political, and other considerations come into play. CST addresses issues such as human trafficking, abortion, the death penalty, birth control, treatment of the poor and the homeless, treatment of the oppressed and enslaved, as well as a myriad of other issues. However, it is worth noting that social justice is not a tradition that belongs to Catholicism alone, but to all people. This can be seen through the lens of Islam and Buddhism, two very different but very important religious traditions, which then begs the question - are we enacting justice, or charity? If so, how does one differentiate the two in order to come to a fuller understanding of humanity and our role within it?

Social Justice Teachings of Other Faith Traditions
Christianity and Islam
Christianity and Islam have always had a tumultuous relationship. In recent years, however, in part due to the large amount of inter-religious dialogue that is taking place, ideas concerning social justice are being exchanged, examined and discussed. For example, by perusing several quotations from the Bible and from the Qur'an, one finds a good number of passages on the love of neighbor. Both Muslims and Christians are called to solidarity, and to help the needy, the poor, the marginalized, the oppressed, the sick, the dying, the hurt, as well as others. 

The founders of these two traditions, Jesus and Muhammad, lived in rather unfavorable times. One of the shared truths that Jesus and Muhammad often spoke about is the poor. The phrase commonly used in Christian circles - “the option for the poor” - actually comes from a Spanish phrase. The Spanish for “option” is stronger, implying something that should be done, not something that you may do. One must live in solidarity - living with and experiencing the poor. In fact, in Islam, paying the zakat (the charity) is one of the Five Pillars, or five requirements of being a good Muslim. 

In both traditions, God created humanity with a particular harmony, but this harmony is not maintained by instinct - rather by action. Right action is a thus a form of witness to God, but injustice can and does cause division, as well as turmoil and strife. Then, jihad becomes important. Although jihad is often associated with a holy war, it actually has a much broader understanding in Islam. It speaks of a struggle to transform the individual and society. But one cannot simply espouse a social justice teaching and not act. One must puts words into action. But Islam is not alone in its call for jihad against the injustices of society at large - other religious traditions, including Buddhism, address these same issues. 

Buddhism and Social Justice
Buddhism is seen in some circles as a contemplative religious tradition. However, this does not mean that it is without its values on the human person and justice. Since its formation followers of the Buddha have placed an emphasis on social justice borne out of compassion. An early example of this emphasis is seen in the reign of King Ashoka (304-232 BC). He started out as a violent ruler, but following his conversion to Buddhism he began to repent for his past actions, and as a result, he tried to rehabilitate prisoners and stop the slaying of animals as well as setting up hospital-like areas for both humans and animals. Further, Ashoka formed a group of messengers who could bring their concerns and desires before the king to be given fair treatment. 

In the Mahayana tradition we read of the bodhisattva, Christ-like figures who live their lives in service of others. A bodhisattva pledges to take upon themselves the burdens and suffering of all beings, from humans to birds to plants. This allows the bodhisattva to fully experience the life of creation and as a result, he or she grows in compassion. The current 14th Dalai Llama cries out for justice for the Tibetan people, as well as an end to injustices across the globe and fair treatment of all through compassionate means. Although this is only one example, it demonstrates that Buddhism also places an emphasis on the same sort of issues that CST does. 

The Relationship between Charity and Justice
At this point it is necessary to define what one means by justice and charity. Justice and charity can be described through analogy. A group of villagers continually finds bodies floating downstream each day. They care for the wounded and bury the dead. The villagers do this day after day, and in their charity continue to take care of the bodies. But is this justice? Justice would be seeking the source of where these bodies are coming from, and changing the situation. Charity is more concerned with social action, whereas one can see that justice is more concerned with systematic action. In other words, charity would be serving at a soup kitchen, helping out at a thrift shop, or building homes for refugees, whereas justice is changing official government policies, and working to transform not only the individual but the society at large. By directly confronting the flawed systems that the issues stem from, one can begin to bring transforming the society. 

Habitus toward Social Justice
By examining the social justice teachings of a selection of religious traditions as well as establishing similarities and differences between justice and charity, one can begin to come into a fuller grasp of CST as a whole. This cry for justice is universal. Love and compassion transcend religious boundaries. A quote attributed to St. Francis of Assisi famously declares, “In everything you do preach the Gospel... if necessary, use words.” Social teaching must show itself in practice, but it should not stop at charity. Social justice is also a spiritual value rooted in different religious traditions. Yet one will find that Atheists, Muslims, Buddhists, Christians, Hindus and others will all talk about social justice issues. Now, in various religious orders, professed members wear a “habit.” This word is derived from the Latin habitus, which means “a new way of life.” By living out social teachings from each religious tradition, justice can begin to take hold in society and can further its transformative power. Yet it takes more than one person, it takes a community of persons; a community of love. It calls for a new way of life - a habitus toward social justice.

[1] Cho, Sungtaek. Selflessness: Toward a Buddhist Vision of Social Justice. Stony Brook: Journal of Buddhist Ethics 7. 2000. 2. Print.
[2] Donovan, John F. “Pope Leo XIII and a Century of Catholic Social Teaching” in The Heart of Catholic Social Teaching. 55-56. Print.
[3] Dardess, George, and Marvin L. Krier Mich. In the Spirit of St. Francis and the Sultan. 1st ed. Maryknoll: Orbis Book, 2011. 153-175. Print.
[4] Butler, Colin. Buddhism and Social Justice. Australia: National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, 2014. 1. Print.
[5] Cho 6.
[6] Analogy derived from chapter 8 of The Holy Longing (Rolheiser, Ronald. The Holy Longing: The Search for a Christian Spirituality. Image. 2009. 169-170. Print.).