Thursday, January 20

The Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD

Throughout the Bible, especially in the Old Testament, we see that dispersion of people as a common event. It occurred at the Tower of Babel on the plain of Shinar, it occurred in 722 BC with the Assyrians and Israelites, the like. We also find that the Jewish nation has become enslaved and captured many times - their time in Egypt before Moses led them out, the Babylonian Captivity in 587/586 BC - and we see the dispersion of the Jewish nation in 70 AD. (Photo credit to: David Roberts, 1850. Wikipedia)

The term, "dispersion," (Greek: diaspora) was used in reference to Jews who live outside of Palestine. Titus (Caesar) succeeded in the catastrophic Jewish War of 66-73 AD - especially with the Fall of Jerusalem and Destruction of the Temple in 70 AD. By New Testament times, it is believed that more Jews lived outside of Palestine rather than in it. In fact, there was an estimated one million Jews in Egypt alone.[1]

Egypt as well as elsewhere began to have issues with the Jews. The non-Jewish relations became strained, and anti-Jewish riots were common. Most main cities in the areas surrounding Palestine at least had its own synagogue - which is how Paul and other Christian missionaries were able to have so many contacts in different cities such as Ephesus and Corinth.[2]

Jews of the dispersion are sometimes called "Hellenistic Jews." Hellenism is a Greek culture and idea(s) from the Mediterranean world which followed conquest by Alexander the Great. Away from Palestine, Jews more readily adapted to Greek ways of life. Indeed we find that later Jewish writings, such as the writings of Philo were heavily influenced by Greek philosophy.[3]

The Jewish Dispersion of 70 AD, however, was a significant event in Jewish history - and has a larger role in history than some realize. The Siege of Jerusalem lasted from March-September 70 AD. Future Emperor Titus and his second-in command, Tiberius Julius Alexander, led the siege. Although the zealots had been able to hold off the Roman forces before, they were beginning to snap, and having issues with one another.[4]

After putting pressure on the city, Titus sent in Josephus, the Jewish Historian, from whom we find confirmation of many biblical events, to negotiate with the defenders. Josephus was wounded by an arrow, but did not die. (Josephus died ca.100 AD) The defenders struck and Titus was nearly captured, but they did not prevail.[5]

According to Josephus, Titus originally planned on sparing that the Temple be spared, but in the end, it was not. It too was destroyed. Some soldiers grew tired of the tactics of Titus and set fire to a building adjacent from the Temple, and the fire spread throughout, destroying the Temple. Many historians, however, believe that Josephus may have noted this to appease those above him.[6]

Josephus noted, "Now as soon as the army had no more people to slay or to plunder, because there remained none to be the objects of their fury (for they would not have spared any, had there remained any other work to be done), [Titus] Caesar gave orders that they should now demolish the entire city and Temple, but should leave as many of the towers standing as they were of the greatest eminence; that is, Phasaelus, and Hippicus, and Mariamne; and so much of the wall enclosed the city on the west side. This wall was spared, in order to afford a camp for such as were to lie in garrison [in the Upper City], as were the towers [the three forts] also spared, in order to demonstrate to posterity what kind of city it was, and how well fortified, which the Roman valor had subdued; but for all the rest of the wall [surrounding Jerusalem], it was so thoroughly laid even with the ground by those that dug it up to the foundation, that there was left nothing to make those that came thither believe it [Jerusalem] had ever been inhabited. This was the end which Jerusalem came to by the madness of those that were for innovations; a city otherwise of great magnificence, and of mighty fame among all mankind. "[7]

"And truly, the very view itself was a melancholy thing; for those places which were adorned with trees and pleasant gardens, were now become desolate country every way, and its trees were all cut down. Nor could any foreigner that had formerly seen Judaea and the most beautiful suburbs of the city, and now saw it as a desert, but lament and mourn sadly at so great a change. For the war had laid all signs of beauty quite waste. Nor had anyone who had known the place before, had come on a sudden to it now, would he have known it again. But though he [a foreigner] were at the city itself, yet would he have inquired for it."[8]

Josephus also claims that there was about 1,100,000 people killed during the siege at Jerusalem, most of which were Jewish, and that 97,000 people were captured and enslaved.[9] Ever since, during the ninth of Av (Tsiah B'Av), both the destruction of the First and Second Temples at Jerusalem are mourned, for on the ninth of Av both were destroyed, though centuries apart. There has been different commemorations and memorials of the event, from Romans to others.[10]

But what is the future, or rather, the other current significance of this event? One of the major prophecies concerning this is found in Luke 21:24, which says, "They will fall to the sword and will be taken as prisoners to all the nations. Jerusalem will be trampled on by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled." (NIV) The Jews most certainly were taken as prisoners and were dispersed. (See entry: "The End Times (Part One)")

Another prophecy regarding this event is found in the Gospels. Luke 21:6, "As for what you see here [the Temple], the time will come when not one stone will be left on another; every one of them will be thrown down." (NIV) There are several other distinct prophecies regarding the Destruction - and Rebirth of the nation of Israel. In essence, the prophecies are stating that from that time (30-33 AD), the Temple would be destroyed, and before Christ's return, the nation of Israel would be reborn.
Stones thrown down by the Romans

Has this yet occurred? Actually, the rebirth of Israel did take place - on May 14, 1948. Prophecy fulfilled. Israel has been reborn as a nation, the Temple is still destroyed, and prophecy was fulfilled, indicating that the time is growing closer in which Christ will return for His people. "Yes, I am coming soon." (Revelation 22:20, NIV, for more information on the Restoration, see here.)

As we see biblical prophecy being fulfilled, we ought to recall that we all have fallen to sin because of the Original Sin, when our ancestors Adam and Eve were tempted by Satan to eat from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, and in turn, all of creation fell with them. "For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord." (Romans 6:23, NIV)

"All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God," and are in need of salvation. (Romans 3:23, NIV) How are we saved? Jesus Christ is "the way, the truth, and the life, no one to the Father except through [him]." (John 14:6) "If you declare with your mouth, 'Jesus is Lord,' and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved." (Romans 10:9, NIV) Yet salvation must also come through the repentance of sins, and "if we confess our sins, [God] is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness." (1st John 1:9, NIV)

Thank you for taking the time to read this entry of "The Truth." We trust this entry has proven insightful, informative, and helpful. Feel free to email me personally at vexx801@yahoo.com, our Ministry team at thetruth.ministrywebs@gmail.com, comment below, visit the facebook page, or visit the Ministry homepage. Take care, and may God bless, reader. Troy Hillman 

Sources:
[1] Various. "Zondervan Handbook To The Bible." 3rd ed. 1. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999. 753. Print.
[2] Ibid.
[3] Ibid.
[4] Various. "Siege of Jerusalem (70)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 27 Dec 2010. Web. 20 Jan 2011. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fall_of_Jerusalem,_AD_70#Destruction_of_Jerusalem >
[5] Ibid.
[6] Ibid.
[7] Flavius Josephus. The Wars of the Jews or History of the Destruction of Jerusalem. Containing The Interval Of About Three Years. From The Taking Of Jerusalem By Titus To The Sedition At Cyrene. Book VII. Chapter 1.1
[8] Flavius Josephus. The Wars of the Jews or History of the Destruction of Jerusalem. BOOK VI. Containing The Interval Of About One Month. From The Great Extremity To Which The Jews Were Reduced To The Taking Of Jerusalem By Titus.. Book VI. Chapter 1.1
[9] Josephus, The Wars of the Jews VI.9.3
[10] Ibid, [4]

4 comments:

  1. Thank you for giving us this importent info
    on the holly Jerusalem.
    -Sharon


    Hostel Jerusalem

    ReplyDelete
  2. wow! thanks for the info. i am going to visit jerusalem next month, can't wait! any recommendation?

    ReplyDelete

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