Monday, January 30

Book Overview: Job

The Book of Job. The book itself is forty-two chapters long. It relays the account of Job, a patriarchal man who had it all. Job had seven sons, three daughters, a wife, seven thousand sheep, three thousand camels, five hundred yoke of oxen, a large number of servants, and five hundred donkeys (Job 1:2-3). He was a wealthy and well-known man, "the greatest man among all the people of the east" in his time (Job 1:4). He would make the offerings to God, and allowed his children to hold feasts. God had blessed this man and his family, and they lived in prosperity. But this was not to last. Satan and his angels came before God, and Satan, the "accuser" (Revelation 12:10), engaged in a cosmic challenge with God. His challenge? Allow Satan to wreck Job's life, which God had blessed, and Job would curse God to his face. The cosmic challenge had been initiated, and the trials of Job had begun. But why did this happen? (Photo credit: God and Job, c.1200 AD - Public Domain usage; Folio 46r from the Syriac Bible of Paris - Public Domain usage)

This is the eighteenth Book Overview in a series of 73 Books. These overviews are written so that it may provide readers with details about the book, things that they may have missed, and will hopefully peak your interest so that you will read the book, the entire Bible in fact, as God wants us to do. If we do not stand on Biblical truth, our starting point for all areas of life. Now, onto the Book of Job.

Title: Book of Job (English), אִיוֹב‎ ʾ iyobh  (Hebrew). The title is derived from the individual whose life and sufferings are featured in the book: Job.
 
Authorship/Written: Generally, it is acknowledged that the author of Job is unknown. However, the time, the theme, and the nature of the work fit well with the tradition that Moses compiled it, some believe from records made by Elihu or others involved (cf. 32:10-18), but more likely from the hand of Job himself (Job 19:23-24), and later compiled through Joban tablets by Moses through the guidance of the Holy Spirit. There are several lines of reasoning: (adapted from Dr. Geisler's book, A Popular Survey of the Old Testament and Dr. Morris' The Remarkable Record of Job)
  • The story of Job comes from before Moses' day.
    • There are no references to the Exodus or the law of Moses; the events seem to have occurred in an earlier period. There is no mention of Abraham of God's covenant with Abraham, nor is there mention of any judges, kings, or prophets.
    • The characteristic patriarchal name for God, "the Almighty," occurs more than thirty times (Job 5:17; 6:4, etc; cf. Genesis 17:1; 28:3, etc.)
    • The family-clan type of social unity is pre-Mosaic (cf. Job 1).
    • The word for "money" (Quesitah) suggests a date at least as old as Joshua (Joshua 24:32), if not patriarchal (Genesis 33:19).
    • The comparative rarity of the name 'Lord' (Jehovah or Yahweh, JHVH) and the common usage of "God" (Elohim) suggests a pre-Mosaic date (cf. Exodus 6:3).
    • The longevity of life seems to be patriarchal. Job lived 140 years after his family was already grown - (42:16) - compare Abraham who lived 175 years (Genesis 25:7).
    • The many allusions to primeval events, such as the global flood, the dispersion at Babel, and a familiarity with Adam and the account of the fall of man (cf. Job 12:14-15, 20, 23-25; 20:4; 22:15-16, etc.).
    • Job the Uzite, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, Zophar the Naamathite, and Elihu the Buzite all believed in the monotheistic God. They were not nearly as influenced by the nearly universal acceptance of pantheism spreading to nations after the dispersion at Babel. There is no hint of pantheism, polytheism, idolatry, or other such things in the book of Job, and after the time of Abraham, such a situation is nearly inconceivable, suggesting a pre-Abrahamic occurrence. 
  •  Some of the words and phrases are characteristically Mosaic in nature, such as "sons of God" (Job 1:6, 21; cf. Genesis 6:2), "fire from God" (Job 1:16; cf. Genesis 19:24), "but" (ulam), "judge" (pelil), "Almighty," and "hawk" (netz). 
  • The theme of pain and suffering fits with the concern Moses would have had while living in Midian for forty years (Acts 7:23, 30), regarding the suffering of his people, including family and likely old friends, in Egypt.
  • While the exact location of the land of Uz is debated, it is thought by some that Uz was adjacent to Midian where Moses spent forty years contemplating the sufferings of his people in Egypt, providing a valuable amount of writing and compiling time.
  • Early Babylonian Talmudic tradition attributes the book of Job to Moses (Baba Bathra 14b), as well as uniform Jewish tradition in general.
  • According to Dr. Henry Morris, "modern archaeological research supports the probability that Job's author lived no later than the time of Moses, and probably much earlier. The name Job has been found in a number of tablets dated 2,000 B.C. (the time of Abraham) or earlier. These include Akkadian documents from Tel-el-Amarna, Mari, and Alalkh, and the Execration Texts from Egypt. The name 'Bildad' has also been noted in a cuneiform text from this period. Finally, a number of Sumerian documents incorporate the literary motif of the righteous sufferer. None of these archaeological references should be taken as referring to the actual Biblical record, of course. Nevertheless, they do confirm the high probability that the biblical account was written sometime in the same general period. Writers of many centuries later could hardly have been aware of these archaeological data."
Summary: "Job explains that God is sovereign, that the causes of suffering are not always known, that people who follow God are not immune from suffering, and that humans cannot understand the mind of God." (Source: NLT)

Overview:
Job 1 -
Prologue; Discourse between God and Satan; Job's Loss
Job 2 - Second Discourse between God and Satan; Intro to Job's "Friends
"
Job 3 - Job asks "Why?"

Job 4-5 - Eliphaz states his case

Job 6-7 - Job replies, mourns his lot

Job 8 - Bildad speaks, defends tradition
Job 9-10 - Job speaks bitterly
Job 11 - Zophar speaks, defends God
Job 12-14 - Job defends his innocence; Allusions to the Flood and Dispersion at Babel
Job 15 - Eliphaz claims that he knows better
Job 16-17 - Job speaks, feels helpless
Job 18 - Bildad speaks, reiterates his point
Job 19 - Job speaks; Reference to the future dwelling of God on earth
Job 20 - Zophar speaks, agrees with his friends
God and Job (12th century)
Job 21 - Job contradicts his friend's claim
Job 22 - Eliphaz accuses Job
Job 23-24 - Job seeks justice
Job 25 - Bildad is irritated
Job 26 - Job speaks; Reference to free-float of Earth in space
Job 27-31 - Job's final word to his friends, final defense; Allusions to aftermath at Babel
Job 32-37 - Elihu speaks; Hydrologic cycle described
Job 38-39 - God speaks; Scientific facts mentioned
Job 40 - The Behemoth
Job 41 - The Leviathan
Job 42 - Job speaks; Epilogue

Breakdown

In the land of Uz, likely shortly before the time of Abraham, a man named Job lived with his wife, seven sons and three daughters. Job was well-known in the East, and also served God faithfully. When his sons and daughters held feasts, Job would rise early in the morning after the feast to sacrifice a burnt offering to God, as a regular custom, in the event that his sons or daughters sinned. In a single day, news reaches him, with one blow after another, one message followed by the next: the Sabeans (nomads of south-west Arabia) had attacked the oxen and donkeys and made off with them, and killed the servants. The next messenger came to tell Job that fire fell from the sky and burned up the sheep and the servants, and while he was still speaking, another messenger arrived to tell Job that the Chaldeans (nomads from south Mesopotamia) killed his servants and made off with his camels. Yet another messenger came to deliver the news that wind had struck down the house in which his ten offspring were at, and none survived. On this day, Job had the carpet pulled from under him, and yet in these things, he did not curse God, but worshiped God instead.

Despite what his friends would later claim, these things did not happen as a result of any sin that Job committed. Before these tragedies occurred, in the courtroom of heaven, God engaged in discourse with the fallen angel: Satan. Satan and his angels came before God. God spoke with Satan about Job, telling him that Job was "blameless and upright, a man who fears [respects] God and shuns evil" (1:8). Satan then began accusing Job, claiming that Job simply obeyed and followed God because he was blessed. Satan then initiated a cosmic challenge: "stretch out your hand and strike everything he has, and he will surely curse you to your face" (1:11). God allowed everything that Job had to be put under Satan's power, but with one clause: "on the man himself do not lay a finger." Job was not privy to these conversations, and was unaware of the cosmic challenge between God and Satan concerning Job. The conversation is something revealed later, but presented to the reader, who is able to have this background while reading the book of Job

After these afflictions, Satan again presented himself to the Lord. After repeating a bit of their prior conversation, God says to Satan, "he still maintains his integrity, though you incited me against him to ruin him without any reason." Satan then accused Job, saying, "Skin for skin! A man will give all he has for his own life. But now stretch out your hand and strike his flesh and bones, and he will surely curse you to your face" (2:3-5). God granted Satan power over Job, but again with one stipulation: "you must spare his life." Satan then afflicted Job with painful sores. He tried scraping himself with a piece of broken pottery. His wife came to him and told him to curse God and die, to which Job replied, "You are talking like a foolish woman. Shall we accept good from God, and not trouble?" (2:7-10).  Having heard of his sufferings, Job's three friends, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite came to sympathize with - and help comfort - Job. But when they saw him from a distance, they hardly recognized him, and for seven days, they sat down with him in silence. After the seventh day, Job spoke, cursing his condition and wishing he had never been born. 

Thus ensued a long discourse between Job, Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar. They were falsely accusing Job of sin. By their logic, suffering was the result of sin, Job was suffering, therefore, Job had sinned. In three rounds of debate, Job and his friends debate the problem of suffering, and why Job was suffering as he was. As none of them were aware of the cosmic challenge between God and Satan, however, their knowledge of the situation was less complete. In each round except the last, each participant speaks. The friends accuse, and Job replies to each of them. In the final round, Zophar does not speak, in his frustration at Job's stubbornness, and Job carries on for five chapters after his accusers have stopped talking. Eliphaz had argued as a theologian, basing his arguments on a vision of God's greatness (which was actually a demonic deception), Bildad had argued as a traditionalist, basing his view on the concept of justice, and Zophar took the role of a moralist, basing his arguments on human wisdom. After Job and his friends have finished speaking, however, a young observer (and some believe a stenographer) intervenes in the debate. Satan had tried sending a spirit in a vision to Eliphaz (4:15-21), with Bildad also resting their case on the spirit's claim (25:4-6), but with Elihu, he had one last attempt to influence Job in a negative fashion.

Elihu had a heightened sense of importance, of his spiritual and philosophical insight. While many commentators contend that he gives a better understanding of the problems than Job and his friends, when examined closely, we find that he is essentially rephrasing what Job's friends had claimed. He also distorts Job's testimonies and pleas, ignoring his repeated references of trust in God. He also ignored Job's notion of innate sin, acknowledging the possibility that he could have unknowingly sinned, and simply that he desired to know why God was allowing his suffering. Instead, Elihu contends that Job had sinned by speaking about God's justice, distorting Job's words to make his point. He took something Job had said out of context (Job 21:14, cf. 35:2-3), resorting to deception and distortion. While he made several correct statements, he was not spirit-led as he believed. Most of his argument was either a restatement of what Job's friends had already said or a distortion of Job's words. He claimed that he could justify Job before God (Job 33:32-33), and while it is true that God can speak to men and women in dreams and visions (33:14-22; cf. Joel 2:28; Matthew 2:13, etc.), Job had been terrified by dreams and visions (Job 7:14), likely from Satan.  

Elihu seemed to believe that his words were divinely inspired (32:8-10, 18). However, this was likely a demonic influence attempting to destroy Job's faith (cf. 4:15-21; 7:14; 32:8-10). Satan had not backed out of this challenge, and was attempting to use various means to destroy Job's faith in God, and get Job to curse God. Yet Job would not do so. In fact, his faith seemed to grow stronger. Job's apparent questioning of God's justice was in reality a defense of God, and not an attack. He understood that God had a purpose for the suffering (23:10), even if he did not understand it. While Elihu was an intelligent young man, he was likely unaware that he was being demonically manipulated. His arrogance of being a gifted youth may have led to his susceptibility to manipulation. In a letter to Timothy, St. Paul warned against this (1st Timothy 3:4-6). Job did not answer Elihu, and in doing so, did not deny God, as Satan was trying to get him to do. He had gone too far, and Job had still not cursed God. Satan had tried to get Job to lose faith in God and deny him, but Job had overcome. The cosmic challenge was then over, and God finally broke His silence, bringing a climax to the book.

Having suffered for months (29:2), and having discussed suffering with his friends and with a likely stranger, Job had not sinned by cursing God. God finally answered Job's pleas to speak with Him, coming in a "storm" (or whirlwind), with the cosmic drama nearing its end. Directly from God, thus ensued a four chapter discourse. Even skeptics acknowledge God's discourse to be one of the greatest masterpieces of literature. It is, of course, much more than that. It is also littered with many scientific facts that had not been known to science until centuries later. Elihu had claimed direct inspiration from God, and God evidently condemned his message from the start (38:2). God began to ask Job a multitude of questions concerning His marvelous creation, which Job could not answer. He mentioned various scientifically verifiable facts, and toward the end of his discourse, mentions the behemoth and the leviathan. Where the behemoth was first in rank among the land creatures, the leviathan was first in rank among the sea creatures. Having finished his questioning, God ended. Job finally replied, essentially apologizing and acknowledging that there were things he spoke of which he could not understand, and repented.

After these things, God spoke to Eliphaz, saying, "I am angry with you and your two friends, because you have not spoken of me what is right, as my servant Job. So now take seven bulls and seven rams and go to my servant Job and sacrifice a burnt offering for yourselves. My servant Job will pray for you, and I will accept his prayer and not deal with you according to your folly. You have not spoken of me what is right, as my servant Job has" (42:7-8). After they had done so, and Job had prayed for his friends, God restored Job's fortunes and gave him twice as much as he had before. Job's brothers and sisters (he was not an only child) came to eat with him, each one giving him a kestiah (a unit of money) and a gold ring. Job's amount of sheep, camels, oxen, and donkey had doubled. He also had ten more children, seven sons and three daughters. He named his daughters Jemimah, Keziah and Keren-Happuch. Following his sufferings, Job lived another 140 years, and lived to see his children and their children "to the fourth generation." He died, old and full of years, experience, and descended to Sheol, where he would await the Incarnation of Christ, and the day when he could ascend to heaven with him (cf. Ephesians 4:8-10, etc.). A definite solution to the problem of suffering was never presented, although several considerations were made. Perhaps a better question, instead of the usual "if God exists, why is there evil?" should instead be, "if God does not exist, why is there good?" 

Book's Place in Canon:
The question of the book of Job in Hebrew canon is a non-issue. The book was well known by the time of Ezekiel, c.600 BC (Ezekiel 14:14), and was considered Scripture by the early Christian church (1st Corinthians 3:19). The question of canonical status did not truly arise until approximately 200 BC, when apocryphal works began circulating. According to the non-canonical work 2nd Maccabees 2:13-15 (written c.100 BC) states that Nehemiah (c.400 BC) "collected the chronicles of the kings, the writings of the prophets, the works of David, and royal letters about sacred offerings, to found his library," going on to imply that Judas Maccabeus (c.167 BC) collected several books of the Hebrew Bible. Some scholars believe that Hebrew Bible was closed by the time of the Hasmonean dynasty, while some appeal to the Council of Jamnia which allegedly occurred around AD 90. But what of Job's place in the canon? 

In the 2nd century BC apocryphal work Wisdom of Sirach (also called Ecclesiasticus), a list is given of great heroes of Israel's past. Some scholars have argued, based on this list, that the books of Genesis-Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, and the twelve minor prophets were available or known to the author, supposed to be Jesus ben Sirach. However, this list of great heroes excludes names and events from books such as Job, Daniel, Esther, Song of Songs and Ruth, suggesting that the author either did not feel the need to make his long work any longer, did not feel that these people or events fit the context of what he was attempting to write, or did not have access to these works. The prologue of the work mentions "the scriptures," which are classified then as "the law, the prophets, and the other writings of our ancestors," indicating that a general canon, which likely included Job, was available at the time. The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, which began by the 3rd century BC and was completed around 132 BC, included the book of Job in its canon.

While there are several other considerations which we could explore, it is hardly necessary to engage further. The book of Job was regarded as canon both by early Jews and early Christians. The book of Job is found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, as well. For example, the Targum of Job (a targum is an Aramaic paraphrase or interpretation of the Hebrew Bible) was discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls. It is present in the canon of many pre-Christian Jews, as well as Origen (AD 185-232) and other early church fathers. It is also found in manuscripts such as Latin Vulgate (4th century), the Syriac Peshitta (5th century), the Aleppo Codex (AD 930), the Codex Leningrad (AD 1008), and so forth. Essentially, the canonicity of the book of Job has never been seriously questioned. Its location in the canon, however, is another story. Protestant Bibles follow the order of books found in the Latin Vulgate, placing Job after Esther and before Psalms. Both Cyril of Jerusalem (AD 313-386) and Epiphanius provide external credence to this tradition. In the Hebrew Bible, Job appears in the third division known as the Writings. In the Sephardic manuscripts, the order is: Psalms, Job, Proverbs; in the Ashkenazic manuscripts, Job follows Proverbs. In the Syriac Peshitta, Job is placed after Deuteronomy in honor of the tradition that it was a book of Moses. The canonicity of Job is a non-issue, people simply disagreed on where to place it in the order of books. 

Points: This book overview is not intended to be an exhaustive commentary and exploration of Job, and as such, there are only a few points and considerations to mention. However, the depths of the wisdom, science, and literature found within Job should not be taken for granted. There is much we can learn from Job, his life, his example, his discussion with his friends, Elihu's points, and, most important, God's questions, filled with some of the most amazing insights found in the Hebrew Bible.

The first and second chapter of Job give us a picture of the courtroom of heaven, where Satan had accused Job before God, and challenged Him in a cosmic drama of the ages, which was later recorded in Scripture. However, Satan's presence in what was likely God's throne room has caused some confusion among people. Other passages indicate that Satan was cast out of heaven, along with his angels (Isaiah 14:12-15; Ezekiel 28:12-17; Luke 16:18, etc.), but if Satan was expelled from heaven, how could he enter it? Theologians have sometimes contended that Satan was expelled from heaven - but is still able to enter the throne room of God. This is allowed by Scripture, and is not contradicted. But do we have other cases of Satan accusing men and women before God? In fact, we do. According to Zechariah 3, Satan stood beside the angel (messenger) of the Lord (likely pre-incarnate Christ) to accuse Joshua, the high priest. Zechariah was written around 520-518 BC, about 1000 years after Job was compiled by Moses. Joshua was the high priest in Israel in the sixth century. In 1825, the traditional tomb of Joshua was reported to have been found. Evidently, by this time, Satan was still accusing people before God. Jesus hinted at this in Luke 22:31-32, "Simon, Simon, Satan has asked to sift all of you as wheat. But I have prayed for you, Simon, that your faith may not fail. And when you have turned back, strengthen your brothers" (emphasis mine). Finally, Revelation 12:10 calls Satan "the accuser of our brothers and sisters, who accuses them before our God day and night."

According to some, there are around fifteen scientific facts in the book of Job, although that is contended by skeptics. One example is found in Job 26:7, which says, "He stretches the northern skies over empty space; He hangs the earth on nothing." Essentially, space is empty ("empty space") and the earth truly hangs "on nothing." Some critical attempts have been made to view these "northern" (Hebrew tsaphon) skies through the lens of Ugaritic mythology, where the god Baal's title was Baal-zephon and he dwelled on Mount Zaphon. These critical attempts are unnecessary, as Psalm 48:2-3 and Isaiah 14:13-14 demonstrates that the north features prominently in connection to God and mountains. Such texts may indicate that it is Yahweh and not Baal who rightly dwells on Zaphon (heaven). However, mythological borrowing may not have been present. Job may have meant "the northern skies," home to the North Star and its constellations. Along with this, some scientists observe that the earth is suspended in space, supported by gravitational forces, with is in agreement with Job's text.

Another example is Job 28:9, which mentions the "roots of the mountains" or the "mountains at their foundations." The fact that mountains have "roots" consisting of rocks generally with the nature and density as the mountains themselves was not known to science at the time. In Job 28:25, we read of the "force" or "weight of the wind." Meteorologists have calculated that the average thunderstorms can hold thousands of tons of rain. To carry this load, logically, it must carry mass, i.e., a "weight of the wind," just as described in Job. It is also believed that Job 36:27-28 may describe the Hydrologic cycle. In fact, it is amazingly precise. It says, "He draws up the drops of water, which distill as rain to the streams; the clouds pour down their moisture and abundant showers fall on the human race." Yet another example is found in Job 38:16, where God mentions the "springs of the deep." In recent decades, it was discovered that there "springs of the deep" in the ocean, which are found in certain parts of the deep ocean floor. Scientifically, until recently, it was believed that oceans were fed by rain and rivers. There are many other examples, but these will suffice.

Some claim that Job 1:20-21 teaches reincarnation. The passage says, "Then Job stood up, tore his robe, and shaved his head. He fell to the ground and worshiped, saying, 'Naked I came from the womb, and naked I will leave this life. The LORD gives, and the LORD takes away. Praise the name of Yahweh.'" But does it actually teach reincarnation? According to the Apologetics Study Bible, "The doctrine of reincarnation as taught in Hinduism, Buddhism and New Age religions is an attractive belief for those who think many lifetimes are needed to reach spiritual perfection. This present passage, along with Ecclesiastes 5:15, is sometimes misused to support belief in reincarnation. Similarly, the 'born again' phrase in John 3:3 is sometimes said to refer to reincarnation. However, Hebrews 9:27 says we are given only one life before we face judgment. In this light, we must heed St. Paul's words in 2 Corinthians 6:2, 'now is the day of salvation.' This is why the apostles were so passionate about preaching the good news to those who were lost. There are no next lives in which you can get right with God. Now is your one chance. Thus, Christians ought to have a sense of urgency in telling others about Jesus, for only by faith in Him can we have peace and relationship with God."

As Job is likely the oldest book in Scripture, it is interesting to note that it includes descriptions of the afterlife. However, despite what skeptics have claimed, Job's view of the afterlife was shaped by his despondent and depressed condition. His view is not representative of the full biblical view on the subject. In fact, some scholars claim that Job's remarks about the afterlife are reminiscent of belief in the Mesopotamian underworld, in which people enter the underworld by crossing perilous mountains, rivers, and a series of gates. However, this interpretation of Job's remarks is fallacious. The phrase "gates" is considered a metaphor for the entrance into the state of death or the grave (Job 17:16). Similar passages include Job 38:17, Psalm 9:13 and 107:18, Isaiah 38:10 and Matthew 16:18. 

Job 28:2 says, "Iron puts an end to the darkness; he probes the deepest recesses for ore in the gloomy darkness." Skeptics once claimed that the usage of iron was a later development. The mining of iron, however, is now known to have taken place as early a the third millennium BC in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and ancient Anatolia. The widespread use of mining operations, however, did not begin until around 1200 BC, about two hundred years after the time of Moses. Also, since the usage of iron (though not widespread at the time) pre-dates Moses, and hence, the usage of iron in mining during Job's time is a non-issue.

There is much more that could be written about the book of Job, and indeed, much more that should be written. The topic of the problem of pain, the scientific nature of God's Word, the historical allusions found throughout the book, among other things are a vast wealth of treasures of the Bible. Perhaps something we ought to bear in mind as we face each day, Job endured much. He lost his family, his wealth, his livestock, and his good health. But he did not lose his faith in God nor did he curse the Lord. Instead, he endured, understanding that there was a purpose, and that "The LORD works out everything to its proper end" (Proverbs 16:4). In the end, there is a purpose for pain and suffering, even if we do not comprehend it. That is not to say that we should simply accept it and allow this corrupted world. Nay, if you do not stand for something, you will fall for anything. Christ did not say that a life in service to Him, the Creator of the universe, would be easy. God never said that life would be easy, but He did say that the pay-off would be worth it: through faith in Christ, we are stripped of our sin which hinders us from entrance into heaven and eternity with God. 

Next Book Overview: Book of Psalms
Previous Book Overview: Book of Esther 

Sources
Balchin, John. Opening Up God's Word: The Compact Survey of the Bible. 1st ed. Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers, 1985. 87-90. Print.

Geisler, Norman L. A Popular Survey of the Old Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1978. 185-190. Print. 


Kohlenberger III, John R. "Read Through The Bible In a Year." Moody Publishers, 1986. 10-11. Print.


Morris, Ph.D., Henry M. The Remarkable Record of Job. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Master Books, 2004. 16-19, 67-70, 75-84, 115-118. Print. 

Sean McDowell and John Stonestreet, et al.. Apologetics Study Bible for Students. 1st ed. Nashville, Tennessee: Holman Bible Publishers, 2009. 513, 524, 530-531. Print. 

Various. Zondervan Handbook To The Bible. Zondervan, 1999. 3rd ed. 349-358. Print.